Vinyl records are mechanically produced analog sound storage mediums. The sound and dimensional parameters are based according to the standard IEC 98 publication in its 3rd edition in 1987.




Vinyl records are classified according to the combination of playback speed and diameter into the following categories:

Code Diameter RPM Designated Marking In Matrix Number
Inch (“) cm
LP 12″ 30 33 1/3 E
MP 10″ 25 33 1/3 F
SP 7″ 17.5 45 H
Maxisingle 12″ 30 45 M
Maxi single 10″ 25 45 N
EP 7″ 17.5 33 1/3 O

In addition to the above mentioned products, there are also different types of records which differ in weight (standard and “heavy”), color, designer labels (picture disc) or shape (shaped vinyl). These may not conform to the standard specifications published in IEC 98.


1.1   Recording times and choice of vinyl records


Each side of a record carries a spiral groove with 2 channels (stereo). The groove begins at the edge of the record and ends within a  specified diameter from the center, where the groove closes within itself. Any request involving a different geometrical groove order needs to be specifically defined as a planned difference from the IEC 98 norm.


The playing time of a record is limited to the frequency and dynamics of the sound, amount reproduced in stereo and various other characteristics of the sound signal. The table below can be used an orientation of playing times.


If the playing time per side does not exceed the timings mentioned, the cutting level is usually only limited according to parameters of the cutting machine and playback conditions. If the playing time is longer than the recommended times in the table, it is possible that the signal requested to be cut could exceed the recording area. In this case, it is necessary to lower the cutting level or to choose a suitable compromise.

Suggested maximum playing times (in minutes)
Vinyl  size 33 1/3 RPM 45 RPM
7″ 6.5 5.0
10″ 13.5 10.0
12″ 19.5 14.5

For a more clear orientation between the track markings, it is possible to cut a transmission groove, keeping in mind that this transmission groove decreases the recordable area.

When selecting the desired vinyl format, it is important to not only take the playback time into consideration, but also the physical principles of playback as well. Based on this, the worst suitable format would be a 7″ EP cut at 33 1/3 RPM (which we don’t recommend, because this particular format has the lowest circumference speed during playback in the center area of the record).


1.2 Geometric parameters of vinyl records

The measurements of vinyl records are based on the IEC 98 norm. Record dimensions 12″, 10″ and 7″ are valid for standard weight vinyl in the diagram below.

Other parameters not included in these figures are:


1.  Flatness of the records:


Records may not show an extreme warping. The warping may not influence a continuous replaying on a record player.


For nonstandard records or for picture discs, where the label is printed from both sides, warping will always be present. Warping can’t prevent continuous play of the record.


2.  Eccentricity of the spiral groove cannot be more than 0.2mm.


The dimensions and flatness parameters for the records mentioned above are not valid for heavyweight vinyl, picture discs or shaped vinyl. Further specifications can be found in the information concerning the specific format.


1.3   Heavy Vinyl

Records with a diameter of 7″ and 12″ are manufactured in 2 different weight classes: “standard“ and “heavy“. Records with a diameter of 10” are manufactured in standard weight.
Diameter Standard Weight Heavy Weight
7″ 50g Not produced
7″ PD 70g Not produced
10″ 110g Not produced
10″ PD 110g Not produced
12″ 140g 180g
12″ PD Not produced 195g

All types of records and weights are within ± 10g, apart from 7″ standard weight, which has a tolerance of ± 7g.

Note: Heavyweight vinyl does not provide improved audio quality from standard weight vinyl. That is a hugely common misconception. Heavyweight vinyl may actually deteriorate the acoustic properties of the recording, for example, by causing increased crackling. These degraded acoustic properties cannot be subject to claim. The weights mentioned above are not valid for picture discs and shaped vinyl. Weights for these types of special records are determined according to the technological parameter settings.

1.4   Colored Vinyl



Records are normally produced in standard black vinyl, other colors can, however, also be combined and customized as follows:

1.4.1   Single Colored Vinyl

The manufacturing of single-colored records is carried out according to the color swatch from Pirates Press. The sample swatch contains different colors with respective names on the color chart. Colored records are manufactured within a 1 degree deviation tolerance from the color selected.

If the customer requests a color that is not on our standard color chart, our factory can attempt to manufacture the color (color match) if a Pantone reference number is provided. In the case of custom colors (color matching), Pirates Press reserves the right to firstly verify that the color can be mixed for vinyl production. If production of the selected color is possible, the records can be manufactured with a 2 degree deviation tolerance from the color selected.

All colored vinyl which is manufactured with an opaque (solid) colored (including metallic inks) base contains a mineral pigment or metal powder which can impair the acoustic properties of the record (causing a possible light crackling surface noise). These defects cannot be subject to claim. Likewise, the inferior acoustic properties (light crackling) on Ultra Clear colored vinyl cannot be subject to claim.

Color deviations that are less than two degrees of deviation from the color chart cannot be subject to claim. Claims against spots where the surface area of the spot does not exceed 0.01% of the total area for compact stains, solid spots where the color is significantly different from the rest of the vinyl, and 0.5% of the total area for spots (marks) which are not solid or uniform and may have a hazy character or spots formed of an equal hue but with a different intensity cannot be accepted.

We evaluate the entire area of the vinyl as a reference (including labels) when investigating claims against colored records. The coverage of spots/stains are calculated as a whole and may not exceed the values mentioned above.

There are specific metallic single colored records for gold, bronze, and silver. The pigment composition causes uneven spillage of a color, especially in the area without grooves, resulting in colored “waves” on a vinyl record – which may result in a different color shade. This effect doesn’t influence the recording/sound quality (lead-in groove, lead-out groove, mirror). These characteristics cannot be subject to claim.


1.4.2   Multi-Colored Vinyl

Manufacturing of multi-colored records is carried out by mixing the individually colored raw material prior to the pressing of the records. The appearance of each individual record will be different and can deviate from the desired end effect. Two-color combinations of black with transparent colors will not yield a good result due to the loss of color effects. Transparent colors mixed with black, for example, will be completely absorbed and not visible whatsoever.

Claims against multicolor combinations are investigated according to similar conditions as with single-colored records in respect to deviations from the color chart such as noise and crackles on opaque colored records with metallic pigments and Ultra Clear vinyl.

Claims against deviation from the color design chart, such as an uneven color representation on splatter vinyl or differing representations of colors for multicolor combinations of two different records produced in the same pressing run cannot be accepted.

If the customer is requesting the same effect as was used for the original production a physical sample is mandatory and will be used as a standard for the pressing.

If the physical sample is not provided, the pressing will be done according to the processing standard and differences in the effect from the request of the customer cannot be the subject of any claim.


1.4.3   Splatter Vinyl

When using more splatter colors, it cannot be guaranteed that all of them will be visible. Black color and dark solid color, used as a base color, absorb splatter colors. The result is splatters are less visible. Furthermore, when using solid colors as a base color combined with transparent splatter colors, the final effect may be less visible. We recommend using transparent colors as a base to achieve a higher contrast.

The amount of splatters cannot be defined. Splatters cannot be used on 7” heavy vinyl records.

For some records, splatter may cause taints or stains on the label; if they do not prevent the readability of the text, they are acceptable, and cannot be subject of a claim process.


1.4.4   AsideBside Vinyl

The recommended combination is to use a solid color and a contrasting color. When using a dark solid color and a light transparent color the vinyl effect will be less visible.


1.4.5   Color-In-Color Vinyl

The record is pressed as a small vinyl puck into a large vinyl puck. When using a small solid vinyl puck, and a large transparent vinyl puck, the colors will be bonded together. We recommend using contrasting colors, preferably a large vinyl puck of a light transparent color and a small vinyl puck of a solid dark color. It cannot be used reversely. In case both of the vinyl pucks are solid, the final effect is random, colors are penetrated and the final effect is more like AsideBside effect.


1.4.6   Tri-Color (Pie Slice)

Both transparent and solid colors can be used and combined. In the middle, there is a risk of label wrinkling, as well as one color contaminating the other. This cannot be subject to claim as far as the label being torn or illegible.


1.4.7   Tri-Color (Striped)

Both transparent and solid colors can be used and combined. In the middle, there is a risk of label wrinkling, as well as the colors flooding together. This cannot be subject to claim as far as the label being torn or illegible.


1.4.8   Half-N-Half

Both transparent and solid colors can be used and combined. In the middle, there is a risk of label wrinkling, as well as one color contaminating the other. This cannot be subject to claim as far as the label being torn or illegible.


1.4.9   Quad

Both transparent and solid colors can be used and combined. In the middle, there is a risk of label wrinkling, as well as one color contaminating the other. This cannot be subject to claim as far as the label being torn or illegible.


1.4.10   Pinwheel

Pinwheel effect produces spokes. They can be on the base color of 3, 4, 5, or 6 spokes. We recommend using a combination of two transparent or two solid colors (for two solid colors, the effect will be more noticeable on the side A, and on side B, spokes will be less profound). When a solid color is used as a base and transparent one is used for spokes, the effect won’t be visible enough on either side.


1.4.11   3 Color AsideBside

Both transparent and solid colors can be used. The sequence of colors is indicated by the order of the pucks in relation to the side (the upper puck is on the outer rim of the record, the bottom puck is on the inner rim of the record.)


1.4.12   Twist

Twist is produced by using 3 colors – its production is complicated, mainly due to need of splitting the pucks into segments. These are always symmetrical and are mirroring each other. The color effect is random. Color spokes are more profound in relation to the side of the vinyl (upper one is more profound on side A, bottom one on the side B). The size of the middle segments depends on the combination of transparent and solid colors. If the basic color is solid, and the spokes are transparent, the effect won’t be visible enough on both sides. This cannot be subject of a claim.


1.4.13   Cloudy

Cloudy effect is transparent and creates an impression of a veil or a cloudy sky. The record is comprised of three colors – one basic and two supplementary. The basic color (the base) needs to be either milky clear or ultra clear. Supplementary colors dictate the color of the record itself and they need to be the same color to achieve the chosen effect.


1.4.14   Galaxy

Galaxy is comprised of either two or three colors and is similar to Marble effect (1.4.20). Both transparent and solid colors can be used. Galaxy will be mostly noticeable against a direct light in case transparent colors are used.


1.4.15   Spinner

The base color must be transparent and the color that will create the effect has to be in contrast to the base color for the effect to be visible. Spinner effect can have splatter, but only two colors of them.


1.4.16   Triple Button

The base color is transparent and the color that will create the effect must be in contrast to the base color for the effect to be visible. Triple button effect cannot have splatters.


1.4.17   Moon Phase

The base color must be transparent and the color that will create the effect has must be in contrast to the base color for the effect to be visible. Moon Phase can have splatter, but only two colors of them.


1.4.18   Butterfly

The base color must be transparent and the color that will create the effect has must be in contrast to the base color for the effect to be visible. Butterfly can have splatter, but only two colors of them.


1.4.19   Random Blend

This is a random effect created by a random mix of colors. Vinyl records can be significantly different in final color effect. This cannot be subject to claims.


1.4.20   Marble

This is an effect with a “marbling” on a vinyl record. The base color must be light transparent and the marbling color must be a dark solid color, preferably black.


1.4.21   Smoke

This is an effect with a “smoke” on a vinyl record. The base color must be light transparent and the “smoke” color must be a dark solid color, preferably black.


1.4.22   Glow In The Dark Vinyl

The vinyl records are manufactured from a vinyl compound with a special pigment. Currently, only green pigment is available. The base vinyl color can be milky clear or ultra clear.


1.4.23   Custom Colors

We can also make custom colored vinyl compound, for a price, on orders of 3000pc or more. In this case, it is important to supply a PMS number of the color requested, as well as whether the request is for opaque or transparent vinyl. We will never guarantee a PMS color match, and not all colors and styles can be made, but we will try to accommodate any request, within reason.

When combining colors, in any of the styles listed above, please note that each color compound has its own properties (density, viscosity, etc.) and therefore react differently when combined with each other – even from batch to batch sometimes. Any photos online, or used as reference, are just a target. There is no guarantee that the colors will not vary at least to some degree.

Black, and some other dark opaque colors are VERY dominant when mixed with other colors. Two-color combinations (black w/ transparent splatters) and 2 color configurations (transparent color in black color) are not suitable because the color effect is lost when the transparent color disappears in the black color. Another unsuitable format we cannot make is 7″ heavy vinyl with splatters.


Note: Colored vinyl records (Ultra Clear, Opaque Colors and fluorescent pigments especially) may deteriorate the acoustic properties of the recording; for example, most often causing increased surface noise. These degraded acoustic properties cannot be subject to claims.


1.5   Picture Disc (PD)

Picture discs are vinyl records which have a printed label on both sides with a sheet of plastic foil (like a transparency) covering the entire surface area on both sides. The grooves are pressed into this transparent plastic material, not vinyl like standard records. As a result, Picture Discs do not sound the same as normal vinyl records, and generally contain increased noise and static. These degraded acoustic properties cannot be subject to claims.
In the case that a one sided picture disc is requested, only one side of the picture disc will be cut. The other side cannot be “mirrored” (smooth surface with no recording), but there must be a “silent groove” (groove without signal).

There are two picture disc labels used. In the case that an exact orientation is requested it must be specified on the purchase order (ie. head to head).

When printing with a standard raster, images may appear distorted due to a phenomenon known as the moiré effect (interference between the grooves and printed label raster). The intensity of this effect is dependent on the art itself. It is not possible to remove this phenomenon by any technologies implemented by the manufacturer and cannot be subject to claims.

Exceeding of the flatness parameters cannot be subject to claim on one sided picture discs. Claims will only be accepted if the deviation is greater than 5mm for 10” and 12” vinyl or 3mm for 7” vinyl. The method of measuring picture discs is the same as with standard vinyl records.


7” PD records can be manufactured in a heavy weight only.


Picture discs may have defects in form of smudges (folded, wrinkled foil). As far as the text is legible and the label design is not significantly deformed this cannot be subject to claim.


1.6   Shaped Vinyl

Shaped vinyl are records which are pressed as normal 7”/10″/12” records and then cut into custom geometric shapes using a cutting tool. The shapes are based on  vector files submitted by our customers, or using one of our existing shapes. Please note, not all shapes are achievable, and certain shapes with more symmetry work better and yield flatter, more consistent results. Also, most shapes significantly reduce the amount of space left on the record that can contain audio – please discuss the specific shape you want, and the amount of music you want the record to contain with your sales rep prior to placing an order.

In the case that a shaped picture disc is requested, the picture disc label must be 2-3mm smaller than the requested final shape size. Shaped picture discs have a tendency to warp/dish, more or less depending on the shapes used. This cannot be avoided, and cannot be subject to claims.


Note: A limited recording area results in a limited playback area. Please refer to chapter 1.1. on page 1. Exceeding the flatness parameter on a shaped pic LPs cannot be subject to claim. Please note that the same conditions apply for shaped picture discs as they do for standard ones (risk of moiré, warping on single sided picture discs, degraded acoustic quality). Please also take into consideration that the playback area is usually considerably reduced when ordering shaped vinyl.


1.7   Test Pressings


Test pressings are sent to customer for approval and are for approving the acoustic quality of the record only. Claims against other defects will not be accepted. The approved sample is used as a standard for assessing the acoustic quality of the complete production.


Test pressings are offered as “heavy weight” (70g. 7”, 180g. 12”) only – there is no option of “standard weight” for test pressings. Test pressings can be ordered upon request for orders under 3000 units and are required for orders of 3000 units and above. The minimum number of test pressings that can be ordered is 5 copies and a maximum of 30 copies. Test pressings can only be pressed on black vinyl and are pressed using blank/white center labels.


1.8   Identification markings


Each side of the record is marked with a mandatory matrix number in the run-out area in the form of: xxxxxxFS. This code serves as an identification of the manufacturing. The first part of the matrix number is a series of six numbers xxxxxx which identifies the particular title. F is the symbol which indicates the format (see Table in chapter 1) and S indicates the side of the record or set, which determines the assignment of pressing tools to the individual sides of a particular title. There can also by other markings that are used for internal records only.


There is a possibility to engrave other characters on customer request, using the capital letters only. The maximum number of characters including spaces is 60. See appendix #2 for allowed characters.


1.9   Silkscreen and etched vinyl


The silkscreen vinyl can be manufactured in variants with a label and without a label; with a silkscreen print over the label or outside the label.


The graphic must be supplied as min. 300DPI or in vectors, using one color (ie. 1/0 K or 1/0 PMS). When using a PMS color we prefer data to be supplied as 1/0 K with an exact PMS color specification in the file supplied.


Extra attention should be paid to a correct distinction between a positive and a negative (according to the base plate). The black graphic will be printed on a vinyl record using the requested color.


In the case a silkscreen printed record without labels on both sides is requested we cannot guarantee the size of the center hole will be kept. This cannot be subject to claim.


The etched picture cannot be combined with a recording. The etched picture can be with a label or without a label. The center ring on the records is blank. The size of the displayed detail depends on the size of the etched area, respectively on the etched / non-etched area ratio. For guidance: if the ratio is higher than 0.5 the smallest detail possible is equal to a font size 18 and higher. If the ratio is smaller than 0.5 a detail equal to a font size 12 and higher can be displayed.
The etched surface area is not gloss but matte and may show different shades. This cannot be subject to claim.


There is a possibility to engrave other characters on customer request, using the capital letters only. The maximum number of characters including spaces is 60.




2.1   Acceptable Input Formats

Limitation of Liability for damages: In the case that a physical master you provide is damaged or lost, our plant will cover the value of the medium, but not the content.


Any physical masters provided must be readable throughout the length of the program. In the event that the supplied medium contains read errors which cannot be corrected, processing of the order(s) will be suspended. The customer will be requested to supply a new data.


Each master must be clearly identifiable in accordance with the supplied documentation and order (catalog number, customer name, artist, title, etc).  The description must also define exactly what is stored on the data carrier (e.g., vinyl master, CD-Audio DDP master or WAV files). The medium needs to be clearly
labeled (both the packaging as well as the physical medium itself) according to the order. It must enable an error-free reading (self-adhesive labels, labeling the medium with a hard tipped pen, etc., are unsuitable ways of labeling your masters).


If a physical master includes files for more than one title, the files must be stored in separate folders and named according to the catalog number of each title, and must match the information contained in your order forms. We recommend storing the tracks for each side in separate subfolders.


Recommendation: ONLY send a COPY of your original master to us for production. It is advisable to send two identical copies clearly marked as a “master” and “back-up”. In the event that any problems occur, we will use the “back-up” copy, thus avoiding potential delays associated with sending new data.


2.1.1 Audio files


Audio files can be added to physical media or uploaded to us. Audio files cannot be used as-is for DMM cutting directly. The data is examined to see if they are suitable for vinyl master cutting, and the tracks will be split between sides of the record and, if necessary, corrective actions will be taken internally to improve the sound quality of your vinyl. Recommended formats:

  • WAV (Windows PCM) – uncompressed audio
  • AIF, AIFF (Apple Macintosh) – uncompressed audio
  • APE (Monkey’s Audio) – lossless compression, including error detection
  • FLAC (Free Lossless Audio Codec) – lossless compression, including error detection

Bit resolution: accepted 16, 20, 24 and 32 bits.


Sampling frequency: accepted 44.1, 48, 88.2, 96, 176.4 and 192 kHz.


We generally do not re-sample files with a sampling frequency higher than 44.1 kHz – only in cases when all files for one side do not have the same sampling frequency. These particular files would be re-sampled in our studio to the highest frequency of all frequencies used. Lower sampling frequencies (for example, 22.05 kHz and 32 kHz), are also accepted but we do not recommend them due to the possibility of degraded sound quality.


We recommend sending the files in the same quality as what has been recorded or received from the studio that produced, mastered or mixed the recordings. We recommended to contact the studio in advance regarding recommendations mentioned in this section as well as recommendations for the preparation of vinyl masters mentioned on our plant’s website.


We do not recommend any additional conversions or transfers.    Non-recommended and inappropriate formats:

  • MP3, MP2, MP1 (MPEG-1 Layer 3, 2 and 1)
  • MP4, AAC, M4A (MPEG-4, Advanced Audio Coding)
  • AC3 (Dolby Digital), DTS (Digital Theatre System Coherent Acoustics)
  • WMA (Windows Media Audio, Microsoft), MOV (QuickTime)
  • OGG (Ogg Vorbis), MKA (Matroska Audio), RA, RM (Real Audio, Real Media)    Unacceptable formats:


•   Files with DRM protection to prevent unauthorized playback, for example, files with the extension m4p (AAC format with DRM protection)


(Unsupported formats may be accepted upon prior consultation)    Division of tracks by side


We recommend saving the audio data for one side in a single file, forming a continuous and uninterrupted track, including gaps between songs. A track list with the running times for each song will serve as orientation of the audio content. We assume that your audio files contain the standard 1-2 second gaps in between each track. Typically, our plant DOES NOT add or adjust gaps between the tracks. If you would like to have gaps added, or need them adjusted, please note that on your tracklisting form, and let your account manager know as clearly and accurately as possible when placing the order. Otherwise, we will cut the record according the master supplied.


There is a high risk of error due to:


–     Confusion when the name of the files and/or folders are not labeled correctly


–     Not specifying when files actually contain the silence for unorthodox gaps between the tracks. (ie. live albums)


If you are concerned about the track spacing on your album, please discuss the issue with your sales rep during the ordering process to ensure your titles are cut the way you desire.    Name and location of files


Appropriate file naming and file location helps us locate the supplied data quickly as well as enabling a smoother and hassle-free ordering process.


(For example: A1_Janie Jones.wav, A2_Remote Control.wav, B6_Garageland.wav).


We recommend choosing a name and the location of the files by following these instructions:

  • Use a separate folder for each order using the catalog number as the file name. “CAT###_MASTER”
  • Save all documentation files (tracklist, PQ sheet, studio notes, etc) in this folder.
  • Create a sub-folder for each side, named “CAT###_SIDE-A”, “CAT###_SIDE-B”, etc.
  • If the audio for the entire side is stored in one file, name it according to the number of tracks stored in it such as 01-05.WAV or 06-09.AIFF
  • If the tracks are stored in separate files, name each file by track number and song title, such as 01-Song_name.WAV.

2.1.2    Physical  masters


Analog or digital mediums containing the continuous recorded information. The division of the program into tracks is defined by the technical conditions of the particular player (ID marks in time sequence) or according to the time mentioned on your order forms.


If one physical medium is to be used for multiple sides, the tracks for each side should be separated by a silent pause which is long enough (at least 3 seconds) and defined by using tags (track number, ID, …) and track times which are in accordance with the accompanying documentation. The order of the songs on the supplied medium must match the desired order of the final product to avoid having to change the song order (rewind, skip to another track,…). If they are not, the customer must state in written documentation the specific requirements to change the song order


We accept the following formats:   CD Audio disc


Fully functional pressed or burnt discs in CD Audio format playable on desktop CD players. We do not accept shaped CDs, business cards CDs, etc.   R-DAT


ABS time (A time) and ID START marks   MiniDisc   Analog media


1/4″ tapes, speed 38, 19 cm/s, EQ CCIR, NAB, Dolby A, Dolby SR. We recommend to record test signals to control the tone and frequency values while setting the azimuth sensor heads on each reel or spool tape. Specific technical data must be clearly specified in the attached tracklist.


(We will accept other media, after prior consultation with our mastering department.)   Other Mediums (after consultation)


U-Matic, SACD, DVD-Audio


2.1.3    Complex CD audio masters, in file form


This data contains all data in a format which is used exactly how it is supplied for mastering without making any unnecessary changes. The studio will only check the supplied files and, in case and if necessary or suitable, the studio will correct the master according to Phillips/Sony CD Audio format standards.   DDP (Disk Description Protocol) format


This is the global standard for transmitting data for production of optical disks, as supported by all manufacturers of equipment for mastering CDs and manufacturers of professional workstations for audio processing.


Recommended version: 1.00.  Version 2.00 also accepted.


Select the setting option for storage of audio tracks in one file if your authoring software supports it.   CMF (Cutting Master Format)


Similar to DDP and is transferable to DDP. If your workstation supports both DDP and CMF, select DDP.   Image data (ISO image) CD Audio


Files that can be used without any adjustments to burn a CD Audio master. Please refer to 2.1.1.


Recommended formats:

  • NRG (Nero)
  • BIN+CUE (CDRW in, ImgBurn, Toast, etc.)

Accepted formats:

  • CDI (DiscJuggler)
  • C2D (W inOnCD), CIF (Easy CD Creator)
  • CCD+IMG (Clone CD), MDF+MDS (Alcohol 120%)
  • IBP+IBQ (IsoBuster), UIF (MagicISO)
  • BW T+BW I, B5T+B5I, B6T+B6I (BlindW rite)
  • TOAST, CDR (Toast, Apple Disk Utilities)    Optical discs CD-R(W), DVD-R(W), DVD+R(W) containing data


Discs in CD-ROM or DVD-ROM format. Discs must contain a compatible file system (ISO9660, Joliet, or UDF).    Hard Drive


We accept all sizes of hard drives (3.5 “, 2.5”), all applicable possibilities of connection (IDE, SCSI, SATA, eSATA, USB, Firewire, LAN). We recommend using external discs but also accept internal.


Disc formats:

  • NTFS (Windows 2000, XP, Vista) recommended
  • FAT32 (Windows 9X) accepted (max. file size is 4294967294 bytes)
  • EXT2, EXT3 (Linux) accepted
  • HFS (Apple) accepted

2.1.5    Mass storage media


Accepted memory cards: SD, SDHC, XD, MMC, Compact Flash, Memory Stick and USB Flash storage media. A single storage medium may contain data for multiple titles.


2.2   Sending data electronically – FTP (


Materials submitted for production via FTP must be accompanied by control elements for verifying the data integrity prior to production. Without these control elements, it is not possible to verify if the customer supplied files are the exact same files which the manufacturer has received.


Orders which do not contain the necessary control elements will be blocked until the data is resent in an acceptable format. If the customer insists on the usage of non secure data, they must assume all risks associated with possible changes (errors) to the data during transmission.


Control elements can be supplied in one of the following ways:


2.2.1    Archived materials


Files which represent a disk image, DDP, CMF or individual audio files containing control elements (e.g. WAV), must be packed in one single file which can also contain documents.


Accepted formats of archive files: ZIP, RAR, SIT, 7Z, ARJ, ACE, others on request.


2.2.2    Using formats with built in control elements


APE, FLAC – compressed audio formats with control elements


UIF – a compressed video format audio CD with the control elements


2.2.3    Check code supplied


Files which do not contain control elements and are not packed into a compressed archive file must be accompanied with control codes that can be used to verify any possible data corruption or unauthorized manipulation of the data.


Accepted codes: MD5, CRC32 and SHA1. Each file must be calculated separately along with documentation of the checksum code for each file. Control codes can be generated using free software such as HashCalc.


2.3   Location and identification of data and audio files


In the case that the customer delivers the order documentation via a data medium or electronically (FTP), the files must be clearly labelled and obvious as to which order they relate to. This prevents possible delays, streamlines the production process and reduces the risk of the wrong data being used.


2.3.1   File Location


Data stored on either our customer allocated FTP server or saved on a data medium must be saved in a folder labelled with a name that matches the catalogue number of the title being ordered. Any file or folder (even inside an archived folder) must not contain invalid characters according to PC and Apple Macintosh operating systems.


In the case that each track is saved in a separate folder, please create a sub-folder named SIDE A (for example) and save all individual tracks into one single folder.


2.3.2   File Names


In the case that the entire audio content is saved in one file for one side, please label it according to the side + number of tracks, for example: “A_01-05.WAV” or “B_06-09.AIFF”.


In the case that you are providing individual tracks, please label them according to the side + track number, for example: “A_01-Song_name.WAV”.


We recommend that compressed folders and disc images should be labeled according to the catalogue number of the purchase order with no additional information (date, etc.) added.


2.4   Documentation


Your master must match the tracklisting you provide us on your vinyl order form, unless you are providing a more detailed PQ sheet instead, which also must contain all of the information requested on our tracklisting form. The supplied documentation must be clear and match the supplied data exactly. A track list must accompany all orders including the names and running times of all tracks, as well as which side of the vinyl they should appear on. We also recommend specifying the lengths of the pauses between tracks.


Supplied documentation must contain the following information:


2.4.1   Identification Information


Catalogue number, customer name, song titles, artist, etc.   Required format


Size of record and speed; or speed of each side (if they are different).   Sides’s times


The times on each side must be listed.   Tracklist


The individual track names, the lengths of the tracks and order that the tracks should be in as well as the total playing time of both sides. We recommend specifying the lengths of the pauses between tracks.   Special requirements


Any non-standard or special requests must be clearly specified and agreed upon in advance (closed grooves, endless loops, etc.)   Special  requirements


Any special requirements (locked grooves, endless loops, lives tracks intended to bleed together, etc) need to be clearly specified and agreed upon in advance.


We do not accept 7″ lacquers; lacquers have to be 12″/14″ size, with grooves made for 7″ record.


3.1   Supplied pressings instruments

Although we don’t prefer it, we can certainly press using customer supplied materials. We accepts lacquers or nickel metal works called fathers, mothers or stampers. Any supplied production parts must be without any visible damage, cannot be soiled (stains on nickel metal works for example) or showing signs of corrosion. We recommend that all supplied metal work, especially lacquers (which are very sensitive) are packed carefully to avoid any damage during transport to our plant. Stampers have to be supplied as unprocessed, uncut originals – not shaped & beveled.
We are not responsible for the quality of records produced from customer supplied materials. Sound defects such as distortion, noise, etc. and defects caused by incorrect cuts (grooves) will not be accepted and all claims rejected.


Records are usually labeled on both sides. Center labels on vinyl records are made of a paper material with an especially high clay content, and are a key structural component in the pressing of the vinyl. Our center labels are made from paper with a glossy finish only (140gsm paper for 10″ and 12″ and from 120gsm paper for 7”s).

Customers can also choose to produce the records without labels, however, this may result in dish warping, as well as deformed, and/or oversized/larger center holes. These potential defects are an inherent risk in making these unconventional products, and cannot be subject to claims.


All labels are subject to a drying process at high temperatures in order to remove the redundant moisture and to prevent from a bubbling of labels during the vinyl pressing. Due to the drying labels may change the coloring. This effect is more visible on light and PMS colors. For example, a light blue label may change to green. We cannot be held responsible for slight color changes on the labels during the drying process. This cannot be subject to claim.


There is a possible risk that the labels will be slightly contaminated when ordering splatter vinyl (for example) during the application of powdered or granulated material to the vinyl during the pressing process. In this case, claims can only be accepted when the contamination is obstructing the text or exceeds 1% of the total label area.


We cannot guarantee the exact orientation of labels on standard records. We guarantee that the orientation of labels on picture discs is so that the text on the labels will be readable when the product is rotated at an approx. 180˚ axis perpendicular to the text. This means that the relative rotation of the label does not exceed 20˚.


When using vinyl records with a non-standard label as e. g. a 12” record using a 7” size label there will be a cut visible on the record which is normally hidden under the 12” label. The reason is that 12” pressing tools are standardly prepared for a standard 12” label. The “exposed” area will not be mirrored gloss but matte. This cannot be subject to claim.


4.1    Types of labels


Basic labels are produced in the following sizes:


a) For 7″ records (17.5 cm) diameter of 84 mm.


b) For 10″ and 12″ records (30 cm and 25 cm) diameter of 100 mm.


PICTURE DISC labels are produced in the following sizes:

a) For 7″ records (17.5 cm) diameter of 168 mm.
b) For 10″ (25 cm) diameter of 242 mm.
c) For 12″ (30 cm) diameter of 292 mm.
For etched, one-sided records, and other specialty records, we also offer small 25mm center labels that can help protect against warping and deformed/oversize center holes. These can be printed as normal, ordered unprinted (white), or flood black.
The text on center labels should be placed so that it does not interfere with the cutting of the labels. We recommend all labels have at least a 2mm gap between the text and the outer edge of the label,  and text should not be placed within 10mm of the center of all labels, for all formats (40mm for 7″ labels with big holes).

4.3    Supplying labels

We will make records with customer supplied center labels in special situations ONLY. This must be agreed upon beforehand between a customer and sales rep.  Supplied labels must be produced on paper with a weight of 150gsm and printed with colors which are resistant to temperatures of at least 150°C (302°F). The backside of the labels must have lines indicating the direction of the paper grain, and the colors used on supplied labels must not bleed through to the opposite side of the label.
Please note: You must supply more sets of labels (10-15% more) than the amount of records you request!
We prefer to produce your center labels internally, as we cannot assure the quality of customer supplied labels on the finished product. If you supply labels, and there are any problems during the production of your records, you may be required to supply additional labels, or pay for us to print more. This is an inherent risk of supplying your own labels, and cannot be subject to claims.


With the exception of certain special products, all of our vinyl records are shipped inside inner and outer boxes. The box lots (qty per box) are determined by the type of product ordered, and how many will safely fit into the boxes we use.  Both inner and outer boxes will be labeled with your catalog number, as well as additional product information as specified on a given order.

All information used on the carton labels must be provided at the time of ordering. Any special boxing requirements must also be specified when ordering, and must be specifically noted on the sales order – We cannot make changes to packaging instructions order once it is in production.

Making any changes to packaging after a sales order has been confirmed carries with it an inherent risk of error and/or delays; neither of which is subject to claims.

Records are sound carriers which require special care upon handling and playback.

  • Temperature range from 5°C to 35°C (41°F to 77°F).
  • Relative air humidity up to 85%, with no harmful chemical fumes.
  • It is important to avoid any mechanical damage to the recorded areas, including incorrect set-up for playback,
    incorrect packaging, etc.
  • Records should be stored in a direct upright position and avoid being tilted.


  • Records are to be packed in transport boxes and stored in an upright position with a maximum of 4 layers. Stacking of cardboard boxes in multiple layers is permitted only in sturdy boxes.
  • Boxes must be secured against shock and movement and must not be mixed with other goods.
  • Records are transported in closed vehicles.
  • Records must be transported in a condition which will not affect their quality.
  • It is the customer’s responsibility to inspect the goods upon receipt of delivery and, if any damage is found (torn or soiled through transport, both of the outer or inner packaging), to inform the delivery driver (if possible) and to inform Pirates Press immediately. All damage claims must be placed within 10 days of delivery. Claims submitted after 10 days will be rejected.



We store plates for 3 years at no cost to the customer, in case a repress is desired from the original metalwork. If a customer needs plates to be stored longer than 3 years, they will have the option to pay in advance for additional 6 month periods, at $40 per record (or $80 for a double LP), per 6 month extension. If a title is repressed within three years, the “clock” reverts to zero, and they will be kept on hand for an additional 3 years, at no cost to the customer.




Although we have an unbelievably successful track-record of pressing wonderful sounding records, there is always the potential that issues can occur. Whatever the problem, our goal is always the same as yours; to resolve the issue(s) and get your records pressed and out into your customers’ hands as soon as possible. If you’re not happy with your tests, neither are we.


Before placing a claim, make sure that multiple people listen to (multiple) test pressings on multiple record players, independent of each others’ critiques. After comparing notes; if there are definite consistencies in your analyses, please proceed with initiating the claims process. This is the only way to isolate these variables as the source of the problem – not isolating them can result in the rejection of your claim, and may cause severe delays to your project unnecessarily.


When placing a claim, remember that you are helping us (and our studio) determine if your record should be recut and/or repressed (depending on the issue), and if so, what to focus on when doing so in order to achieve results that you will be happier with. Please be clear and detailed, and we will do our best to use that information to analyze our copy of the tests, as well as the plates, to provide you with a timely, informative, and productive response. Thank you.


You can fill out a test pressing claim form HERE.